Data and Information
What is data ?
It is defined as a group of facts that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are commonly the consequences of estimations and can be the premise of diagrams, pictures, or perceptions of a bunch of factors. Data are many times seen as the most minimal degree of reflection from which data and information are inferred. Raw data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols that are unprocessed.
“Data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. Comparative with the present PCs and transmission media, information will be data changed over into parallel computerized structure.
“Data sometimes means digital-encoded information”.
“Data is a gathered body of facts”.
Types of Data
The term data means groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables.
=> Qualitative data
=> Quantitative data
Qualitative data is a special type of data that is used to describe the quality of something. Various examples of qualitative data are: innocent, intelligent, beautiful are qualitative data.
Quantitative data is another category of data that is represented in numerical form.
Various examples of quantitative data are height of person, number of cars, weight of person etc.
Different forms of data: The data can take different forms in different positions. The various forms of data are shown in the following diagram:
What is Information ?
Information is an important concept in the field of information systems (IS). It has become widely understood that Information systems produce and disseminate (spread) information. The word data is derived from Latin Informare.
As per the Oxford English Word reference, the principal known authentic importance of the word data in English was the demonstration of illuminating, or giving structure or shape to the brain, as in schooling, guidance, or preparing.
Many people speak about the Information Age as the advent of the Knowledge Age or knowledge society, the information society, the Information revolution, and information technologies, and even though informatics, information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word “information” is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has acquired. Data is the raw hand material which is collected by using different ways and by the different types of users.
Information is the processed form of data. This information is used for a better decision-making process i.e. to take a good decision. It means that information is the finished product. Processing the raw facts generates information.
Definition of Information :
“Information is data that has been processed in a form that is meaningful to the receiver (recipient) and has a precious value that is used for the better decision making process. Information resources are reusable”.
Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to concepts of constraints, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Generally, information is knowledge based. Basically, knowledge is of two types:
Such knowledge is gained on the basis of certain assumed facts or experiments
It is knowledge gained from practice, experience and having good judgment. It is the knowledge underlying rules of thumb and rules as a result of genuine querying that achieves the desired output.
When information is used for understanding then it is known as knowledge.
The quality of information is measured from the effective decision making, For example, in daily life a house wife buys milk every morning and she records it on a note book (the number of litters she had purchased).
At the end of the month, she adds them all from the notebook, and multiplies it by the price per liter and gets the final amount. So the result is the information that will be used for the payment to the milkman.
She will also get the information about the average milk consumption per head, total monthly expenditure on milk etc. Here, she has not only collected the milk data, but also applied the processing for the addition of data. She gets the final information for the better utilization of her resources (money etc.).
So at end we can say that the information is the processed form of data. Information processing is as shown in the figure:
Information is one of the main types of resources that are available to the managers. Information can be managed just as any other resource, and the interest in this topic generates from two influences.
First, business has become more complex, and second, the computer has achieved improved capabilities. In the firm’s environment the information is output of computers that is used by managers, non-managers, persons and organisations.
Managers are found on all organizational levels of the firm and in all functional areas. Managers perform functions and play roles, and they need skills in communication and problem solving in order to be successful.
Managers should be computer literate, but, more important, they should be information literate. It is helpful if the manager has an ability to see his or her unit as a system comprising subsystems and existing in a larger super system. The firm is a physical system, but it is managed through the use of a conceptual system.
The conceptual system consists of an information processor that transforms data into information and represents the physical resources. The first major computer application was the processing of accounting data. That application was followed by four others: management information systems, decision support systems, the virtual office. and knowledge-based systems.
All five of these applications compose the computer-based information system (CBIS). Firms establish an information services organization of information specialists to provide expertise in the development of computer-based systems. These specialists include systems analysts, database administrators, network specialists, programmers, and operators. During the past few years users have begun doing much of the work of the special phenomenon called end-user computing.
Characteristics of information
Factual information is typically concise. It offers undeniable responses to explicit inquiries. Not an obvious reason or examination is required. Instances of hotspots for verifiable data are reference books, measurable arrangements.
Analytical information dissects and deciphers realities to shape an assessment or reach a resolution. The essential inquiries responded to with insightful data are the reason? Or on the other hand how? Instances of hotspots for insightful data are books and articles.
Subjective information is one individual’s viewpoint. In a paper, the publication segment is the spot for subjectivity. It very well may be founded on reality, yet it is one individual’s understanding of that reality. Along these lines, abstract data is likewise logical. Research papers are generally emotional, in that you will figure out a theory explanation and back it up with research sources that help your perspectives.
Objective information surveys many perspectives. It is planned to be unprejudiced. Journalists should be goal and report current realities of an occasion. Reference books and other reference materials likewise give objective data.
- Another characteristic of information is whether it is current or historical. Many people never look at the date of a publication or web site. Depending on your information needs, however, the date can be very important. If you are reviewing the latest cancer treatments, current information will be of utmost importance . On the off chance that you are checking on perspectives toward disease during the 1960s, you will most likely need to survey verifiable data.
- Primary information is original, firsthand information. It hasn’t been interpreted, analysed, condensed, or changed. It can be in the form of a creative work, diam speech, letter, interview, news film footage, autobiography, photograph, office record, historical document.
- Information that is one or more steps removed from the original research or event is considered as secondary information. These sources may interpret or analyze a primary source. They are usually written by someone other than the original author.
What is difference between Data and Information ?
We have combined data and information in our classification of resource types; however, they are not the same. Data consists of raw facts which are relatively meaningless to the user.
For example, data may be the number of hours worked for each employee in the company. When this data is processed, it can be converted into information. When the hours worked by each employee are multiplied by the hourly rate, the product is the gross earnings. When the figures for each employee’s gross earnings are added, the sum is the total payroll amount for the entire firm. This payroll amount would be information to the owner of the firm. Information is processed or meaningful data.
Antique dealers and flea market operators are fond of saying, “One person’s junk is another person’s treasure.” Applying the same logic to data and information, we could say. “One person’s data is another person’s information.” The gross earnings figures for a firm’s employees provide an illustration. The separate figures are information to each of the employees: Each figure tells them how much money they earned last week.
But to the company’s owner, these figures are data. The owner wants to know the total payroll for the firm, and the individual figures (the data) must be processed to produce this amount. The transformation of data into information is performed by an information processor. The information processor is one of the key elements in the conceptual system. The information processor can include computer elements, non-computer elements, or some combination of the two.
Now, we differentiate between data and information as in the below table
|It generally refers to raw facts and observation.
|It is the processed form of data.
|It is disorganized and not in a proper argument.
|It is properly organized and in a suitable argument.
|It is the raw form.
|It is the finished product.
|In its raw form, it can’t be easily understood and is of no use to anyone.
|In its finished form, it is easily understandable and can be used by anyone.
|Data is not dependent on information.
|It is totally dependent on information.
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